Tears Of Shame … Yet Again

Over the past few weeks, we have read with horror about the discovery of unmarked graves at Canada’s boarding schools that housed indigenous children a century ago.  But guess what, folks?  We may well find the same here.  The U.S. does NOT have clean hands when it comes to the treatment of the original settlers in this land, the Native Americans.  The New York Times has presented a moving article that frankly brought tears to my eyes when I read it last night, so I have decided to share it with you, my friends.


Lost Lives, Lost Culture: The Forgotten History of Indigenous Boarding Schools

Thousands of Native American children attended U.S. boarding schools designed to “civilize the savage.” Many died. Many who lived are reclaiming their identity.

The last day Dzabahe remembers praying in the way of her ancestors was on the morning in the 1950s when she was taken to the boarding school.

At first light, she grabbed a small pouch and ran out into the desert to a spot facing the rising sun to sprinkle the taa dih’deen — or corn pollen — to the four directions, offering honor for the new day.

Within hours of arriving at the school, she was told not to speak her own Navajo language. The leather skirt her mother had sewn for her and the beaded moccasins were taken away and bundled in plastic, like garbage.

She was given a dress to wear and her long hair was cut — something that is taboo in Navajo culture. Before she was sent to the dormitory, one more thing was taken: her name.

“You have a belief system. You have a way of life you have already embraced,” said Bessie Smith, now 79, who continues to use the name given to her at the former boarding school in Arizona.

“And then it’s so casually taken away,” she said. “It’s like you are violated.”

Bessie Smith, 79, was forbidden from speaking her Navajo language once she began attending a federal boarding school and nearly forgot her native tongue. “It’s so casually taken away,” she said. “It’s like you are violated.”Credit…Sharon Chischilly for The New York Times

A memorial set up after the discovery of 215 unmarked graves at a former boarding school in British Columbia.Credit…Amber Bracken for The New York Times

The recent discoveries of unmarked graves at government-run schools for Indigenous children in Canada — 215 graves in British Columbia, 750 more in Saskatchewan — surfaced like a long-forgotten nightmare.

But for many Indigenous people in Canada and the United States, the nightmare was never forgotten. Instead the discoveries are a reminder of how many living Native Americans were products of an experiment in forcibly removing children from their families and culture.

Many of them are still struggling to make sense of who they were and who they are.

In the century and a half that the U.S. government ran boarding schools for Native Americans, hundreds of thousands of children were housed and educated in a network of institutions, created to “civilize the savage.” By the 1920s, one group estimates, nearly 83 percent of Native American school-age children were attending such schools.

Tolani Lake School children and staff in an undated photograph.Credit…National Archives

“When people do things to you when you’re growing up, it affects you spiritually, physically, mentally and emotionally,” said Russell Box Sr., a member of the Southern Ute tribe who was 6 when he was sent to a boarding school in southwestern Colorado.

“We couldn’t speak our language, we couldn’t sing our prayer songs,” he said. “To this day, maybe that’s why I can’t sing.”

The discovery of the bodies in Canada led Secretary of the Interior Deb Haaland, the first Native American to head the department that once ran the boarding schools in the United States — and herself the granddaughter of people forced to attend them — to announce that the government would search the grounds of former facilities to identify the remains of children.

That many children died in the schools on this side of the border is not in question. Just last week, nine Lakota children who perished at the federal boarding school in Carlisle, Pa., were disinterred and buried in buffalo robes in a ceremony on a tribal reservation in South Dakota.

Many of the deaths of former students have been recorded in federal archives and newspaper death notices. Based on what those records indicate, the search for bodies of other students is already underway at two former schools in Colorado: Grand Junction Indian School in central Colorado, which closed in 1911, and the Fort Lewis Indian School, which closed in 1910 and reopened in Durango as Fort Lewis College.

“There were horrific things that happened at boarding schools,” said Tom Stritikus, the president of Fort Lewis College. “It’s important that we daylight that.”

A committee at Fort Lewis College in Colorado has begun investigating the institution’s past and is studying how to search its former campus for the possibility of the remains of children who died there.Credit…Sharon Chischilly for The New York Times

Fort Lewis Indian School, which closed 111 years ago, was dedicated to eradicating Native American culture. Now, on its former grounds, student are planting Native American crops.Credit…Sharon Chischilly for The New York Times

The idea of assimilating Native Americans through education dates back to the earliest history of the colonies.

In 1775, the Continental Congress passed a bill appropriating $500 for the education of Native American youth. By the late 1800s, the number of students in boarding schools had risen from a handful to 24,000, and the amount appropriated had soared to $2.6 million.

Throughout the decades that they were in existence, the schools were seen as both a cheaper and a more expedient way of dealing with the “Indian problem.”

Carl Schurz, the secretary of the interior in the late 1800s, argued that it cost close to $1 million to kill a Native American in warfare, versus just $1,200 to give his child eight years of schooling, according to the account of the historian David Wallace Adams in “Education for Extinction.” “A great general has said that the only good Indian is a dead one,” Capt. Richard H. Pratt, the founder of one of the first boarding schools, wrote in 1892. “In a sense I agree with the sentiment, but only in this: That all the Indian there is in the race should be dead. Kill the Indian in him and save the man.”

Students and staff at Fort Lewis Indian School circa 1900.Credit…Courtesy of the Center of Southwest Studies, Fort Lewis College

Those who survived the schools described violence as routine. As punishment, Norman Lopez was made to sit in the corner for hours at the Ute Vocational School in southwestern Colorado where he was sent around age 6. When he tried to get up, a teacher picked him up and slammed him against the wall, he said. Then the teacher picked him up a second time and threw him headfirst to the ground, he said.

“I thought that it was part of school,” said Mr. Lopez, now 78. “I didn’t think of it as abusive.”

A less violent incident marked him more, he said.

His grandfather taught him how to carve a flute out of the branch of a cedar. When the boy brought the flute to school, his teacher smashed it and threw it in the trash.

He grasped even then how special the cedar flute and his native music were. “That’s what God is. God speaks through air,” he said, of the music his grandfather taught him.

He said the lesson was clear, both in the need to comply and the need to resist.

“I had to keep quiet. There’s plenty where it came from. Tree’s not going to give up,” he said of the cedar. “I’m not going to give up.”

Decades later, Mr. Lopez has returned to the flute. He carves them and records in a homemade studio, set up in his home on the Ute Mountain Ute reservation in Towaoc, Colo.

Norman Lopez, 78, playing a flute outside of his home. He said a boarding school teacher in Colorado smashed his hand-carved flute and threw it in the trash.Credit…Sharon Chischilly for The New York Times

Russell Box Sr. spends his days at his home in Ignacio, Colo., painting images of Native American symbols and ceremonies he was told to forget at the boarding school he attended as a child.Credit…Sharon Chischilly for The New York Times

In the same boarding school, Mr. Box was punished so severely for speaking Ute that he refused to teach his children the language, in an effort to shield them the pain he endured, his ex-wife, Pearl E. Casias, said.

Years of alcoholism followed, he said. His marriage fell apart. It was not until middle age that he reached a fork in the road.

“I had been yearning in here,” he said, pointing to his heart. “My spirit had been yearning in here to stand in the lodge,” he said, referring to the medicine lodge that dancers enter during the annual Sundance, one of the most important ceremonies of the Ute people. “Then one day I said to myself, ‘Now I’m going to stand.’ And when I said that inside of me, there was a little flame.”

He went to the Sundance for the first time. He stopped drinking. This year, one of his daughters reached out to her mother, asking if she could teach her how to make beaded moccasins.

But for many, the wounds just do not heal.

Students and staff at Grand Junction Indian School in central Colorado in an undated photograph.Credit…Museums of Western Colorado

Jacqueline Frost, 60, was raised by her Ute aunt, a matron at the boarding school who embraced the system and became its enforcer.

Ms. Frost said she remembered the beatings. “I don’t know if it was a broom or a mop, I just remember the stick part, and my aunt swung it at me,” she said, adding: “There was belts. There was hangers. There was shoes. There was sticks, branches, wire.”

She, too, turned to alcohol. “Even though I’ve gone to so much counseling,” she said, “I still would always say, ‘Why am I like this? Why do I have this ugly feeling inside me?’”

By the turn of the century, a debate had erupted on whether it was better to “carry civilization to the Indian” by building schools on tribal land. In 1902, the government completed the construction of a boarding school on the Southern Ute reservation in Ignacio, Colo. — the school that Mr. Box and Mr. Lopez both attended.

The impact of the school, which was shuttered decades ago, can be summed up in two statistics: In the 1800s, when federal agents were trawling the reservation for children, they complained that there were almost no adults who spoke English. Today, about 30 people out of a tribe of fewer than 1,500 people — only 2 percent — speak the Ute language fluently, said Lindsay J. Box, a tribal spokeswoman. (Mr. Box is her uncle.)

“There were horrific things that happened at boarding schools,” said Tom Stritikus, the president of Fort Lewis College. “It’s important that we daylight that.”Credit…Sharon Chischilly for The New York Times

Jacqueline Frost, 60, holds a photo showing how she was forced to adopt the look and attire of a white girl. She said she was beaten by a Ute aunt who served as a matron at a federal boarding school designed to assimilate Native children.Credit…Sharon Chischilly for The New York Times

For decades, Ms. Smith barely spoke Navajo. She thought she had forgotten it, until years later at the hospital in Denver where she worked as director of patient admissions, a Navajo couple came in with their dying baby and the language came tumbling back, she said.

It marked a turn for her. She realized that the vocabulary she thought had been beaten out of her was still there. As she looked back, she recognized the small but meaningful ways in which she had resisted.

From her first day in the dormitory, she never again practiced the morning prayer to the four directions.

Unable to do it in physical form, she learned instead to do it internally: “I did it in my heart,” she said.

In her old age, she now makes jewelry using traditional elements, like “ghost beads” made from the dried berries of the juniper tree. When she started selling online, she chose the domain: www.dzabahe.com.

It is her birth name, the one that was taken from her at the boarding school, the one whose Navajo meaning endured: “woman who fights back.”

23 thoughts on “Tears Of Shame … Yet Again

  1. Pingback: Tears Of Shame … Yet Again | Filosofa’s Word | Ramblings of an Occupy Liberal

  2. More and more of these stories will come out. We will never understand what it was like, but we can listen and try to understand and support. Thanks for sharing this Jill. I was pretty sure it was both our countries.

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  3. Our history has much to be ashamed of but the guilt is only ours if we still allow it to happen and don’t respect the right of people to follow the way of their families, their tribes that don’t have a negative impact on others. We have to recognise that those who follow their old cultural ways are not lesser people that we are, there are no lesser people, just those who live a different way of life.
    Cwtch

    Liked by 1 person

    • Exactly … we did not cause what happened, but if we whitewash it, if we cover it up, then we are almost ensuring that it will happen again at some point. We must teach all the facets of our history, not only the bright ones. You are spot on when you say “there are no lesser people” … at least not as defined by their culture or characteristics. There may be lesser people as defined by their behaviours, but that’s a whole different ball of wax.
      Cwtch

      Liked by 1 person

  4. It’s such an awful thing, how the first settlers mistreated, murdered, and tried to use an assortment of awful measures, to, assimilate the natives, calling them, “barbaric”, when the means they used, to make these, original, inhabitants of the places these settlers took over, were, what’s, barbaric. The natives respect all living things, and the intruders, kill, murder, and, slaughter, it’s, truly, awful!!! These settlers are, the, barbarians!

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    • Exactly! It would be as if you invited me to your home for dinner and I then came and killed your children and burned your house down. That is exactly what we did to the Native Americans. Thing is … we must make sure it can never happen again by teaching our own children. There are some in this country who wish to cover it up, to whitewash the darker parts of our history, and we cannot let that happen!

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    • Yep … I’ve sighed more than a few times since I first started reading this and yes, there is so much that wasn’t even mentioned, some that may never even be known. But, we must make absolutely certain that this history is not covered up, that it is exposed and called out for the horror that it was. Otherwise, we will be destined to repeat it.

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  5. As horrible as this article is, is does not portray the real extent of the physical abuse. The mental abuse is hinted at, but not depth-dived. Spiritual abuse is talked about, but the effects are barely touched upon. But what is totally missing is the SEXUAL ABUSE. Maybe it was only the priests and nuns in Catholic-run Residential Schools (and their counterparts in Anglican and Baptist / United religions) in Canada, maybe this did not happen in Indian Boarding Schools in America, but not likely, but almost every child that went through the system was sexually abused in one way or another. Where is that admission, or is it to ugly to be talked about? Because it needs to be talked about. I have friends and acquaintances still alive today who admit they were victims of sexual predators, though they find it impossible to tell how those abuses took place.
    You may wonder why churches are being burned in Canada, why statues of racists are being torn down. Whites call it vandalism. But victims of Residential Schools, and their children, are trying to purify their spirits through fire. And who can blame them?

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    • Only so much can be said in a single article, my friend. I wholly agree with you that the level of abuse in both our countries goes much deeper than is conveyed here. However, I think the article was a step forward, and we must … MUST teach future generations what truly happened, for to cover it up is the same as saying that it was ‘okay’, and we both know there was nothing okay about any of this. Yes, these things need to be talked about, but you cannot ask that a single article in a newspaper cover it all. I don’t blame people at all for being angry, and I’ve been tempted to burn down a few churches myself, but we both know that isn’t the answer. Fighting violence and cruelty with more violence and cruelty has never been a winning formula. Education, enlightenment. We cannot undo the past, but we can do everything in our power to ensure it isn’t repeated … EVER.

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  6. Jill, taking kids away from their homes to place them in boarding schools for assimilation is something right of dystopian novels. It is also can be found in Nazi Germany, the USSR and North Korea, but make no mistake, it appears in the history of the US, Canada, Australia and UK. This is why we must teach children about history, the good, the bad and the ugly. If we do not, then these horrible mistakes are destined to be repeated. It should be noted Margaret Atwood, a Canadian who wrote “The Handmaid’s Tale” first said such a novel could not happen in the US. With the last president, she said it indeed was possible here.

    I will be posting a letter to the editor that a current Republican sent in that shared his concern under the banner of “GOP Censorship.” I agree with its premise. Keith

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    • You’ve hit the nail on the head when you said that this is why we must teach children about the history … the good, the bad, and the ugly! I look forward to reading your letter!

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  7. Pingback: Tears Of Shame … Yet Again by Jill Dennison – DEEZ – News about Art, Books & more

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